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دانلود فایل پاور پوینت (اسلاید) Entrepreneurship: an international phenomena

دانلود فایل پاور پوینت (اسلاید) Entrepreneurship: an international phenomena



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Not Just Small Companies
Not Just Start-Ups
Not the Unscrupulous Promoters
Not Just For-Profit Firms
Not Just Non-Government
Certainly not many “dot.com’s”
What is it to you as a studentWhat it isn’t
Why is it important
What role does it play in society
What is its role internationally
How is being an entrepreneur different from being a manager
Risk Taker
Founder
Innovator
Capitalist
Scoundrel
Born not LearnedFrancis A. Walker (1876)
...the new captains of industry as the principals agents of production and industrial process.
Joseph Schumpter (1934)
...the entrepreneur is the man who gets new things done.Cockroaches
Mice
Giselles
ElephantsPeter F. Drucker (1964)
...’maximization of opportunities’ is a meaningful, indeed a precise, definition of the entrepreneurial job. It implies that effectiveness rather than efficiency is essential in business. The pertinent question is not how to do things right but how to find the right things to do, and to concentrate resources and efforts on them.William Baumol (1968)
He is the individual who exercises what in the business literature is called ‘leadership’
Albert Shapero (1975)
...a kind of behavior that includes: 1) initiative taking, 2) the organizing or reorganizing of social / economic mechanisms to turn resources and situations to practical account, 3) the acceptance of risk of failure. A major resource utilized by the entrepreneur is himself.
“The pursuit of opportunity beyond the resources you currently control”

Professor Howard Stevenson
Harvard Business School Innovative
Creative
Excellence
EgosCooperative, a team player;
Strong desire to work hard;
High in desire to learn new & different things;
Able to listen to others;
Not competitive;
Not any more risk prone than other professionals.Achievement Oriented Personality
Entrepreneurial Attitudes
Belief in Self and Ability
Social Context
Precipitation Event
Intention to Start a Venture
Opportunity Recognition
Controlling Resources
TimingTechnological Change
Economic Change
Social Change
Psychological ChangeResponse to Ambiguity
Need for Flexibility
Creating Economic Value
Key to Economic Development
Matches Risks and Rewards
Creation of Wealth
Creation of JobsAre there national differences in entrepreneurial activity
Is entrepreneurial activity related to national economic growth
Why are some countries more entrepreneurial than others
What can be done to enhance entrepreneurial activity Cultural,
Political
Context
General National
Framework
Conditions
Openness (External Trade)
Government (Extent,Role)
Financial Markets (Efficiency)
Technology, R&D (Level, Intensity)
Infrastructure (Physical)
Management (Skills)
Labor Markets (Flexible)
Institutions (Unbiased, Rule of Law)Entrepreneurial
Framework
Conditions
Financial
Government Policies
Government Programs
Education & Training
R&D Transfer
Commercial, Legal Infrastructure
Internal Market Openness
Access to Physical Infrastructure
Cultural, Social NormsEntrepreneurial
OpportunitiesEntrepreneurial
Capacity
- Skills
- MotivationNational
Economic
Growth
(GDP,Jobs)Business
ChurningMicro, Small, and
Medium Firms
(Secondary Economy)GEM CONCEPTUAL MODEL Major
Established Firms
(Primary Economy)Necessity
Opportunistic
Market Replication
Customers know product or service well
Lots of competition
Using established technology or procedures
Market Expansion, Creation
Customers unfamiliar with product or service
No competition
New technology or procedures Opportunity Entrepreneurship low
Necessity entrepreneurship very Low
Market expansion entrepreneurship low
Women low in entrepreneurship relative to men
Small percent adults
See business opportunities
Know an entrepreneur
Think they know how to start a business
Low income disparity
Opportunity entrepreneurship low
Necessity entrepreneurship very low
Market Expansion entrepreneurship very low
Women low entrepreneurship rates relative to men Small percent adults
See business opportunities
Think they know how to start a business
Some know an entrepreneur
Substantial farm sector
Moderate income disparity
Low VC, informal financing
Opportunity entrepreneurship moderate
Necessity entrepreneurship very low
Market expansion entrepreneurship moderate
Women low in entrepreneurship relative to men
Many adults
See business opportunities
Think they have start-up skill
Know an entrepreneur
Have high fear of failure
Low income disparity
High social security costs
Moderate VC, informal financing

Opportunity entrepreneurship high
Necessity entrepreneurship low
Market Expansion entrepreneurship high
Women low in entrepreneurship relative to men
Many adults
See business opportunities
Think they have start-up skill
Know an entrepreneur
Have low fear of failure
Moderate income disparity
Moderate VC, informal financing
Opportunity entrepreneurship high
Necessity entrepreneurship high
Market Expansion entrepreneurship high
Women approach men in entrepreneurship rates
Many adults
See business opportunities
Think they have start-up skill
Know an entrepreneur
Substantial farm sector
High % unemployed < 25 yrs old
Highest income disparity
Highest firm registration barriers
Moderate VC, informal financing
Opportunity entrepreneurship high
Necessity entrepreneurship high
Market Expansion entrepreneurship high
Women approach equality in entrepreneurship rates
Many adults
See business opportunities
Think they have start-up skill
Know an entrepreneur
Substantial farm sector
High % unemployed < 25 yrs old
High income disparity
Political System
High levels of corruption
Weak property rights protection
Highest firm registration barriers
Moderate VC, informal financing
37 GEM 2002 countries
3,882 million people
2,374 million in labor force age range (18-64 years old)
62% of world population
92% of world GDP
Estimate 286 million active in start-ups
205 million in India and China
18 million in the US
11.6 million EU + 4
4.0 million Eastern European 5
140 million business entities (2 per start-up)
Estimate 460 million active in the world
Compare to 132 million new human births each year
More that population of North America (415 million)Who or what is entrepreneurial
People
Businesses
Industries
Entire societies
What makes “it” entrepreneurial
Special traits
New/innovative ideas, products, & services
High growth activities
Exploitation of opportunity and/or people
Creation of new markets, new economic sectors


پاور


پوینت


(اسلاید)


Entrepreneurship:


an


international


phenomena


مقاله


پاورپوینت


فایل فلش


کارآموزی


گزارش تخصصی


اقدام پژوهی


درس پژوهی


جزوه


خلاصه


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